This contemporary India has
come out after three historical phases: ancient period dominated by Hindu
kings and emperors, medieval led by Muslims emperors, invaders, traders and
Sufi saints, and modern period which is associated with the Christian
British Empire. Each period has uniquely contributed in the great Indian
civilization and cultural heritage.
the existence of human being in India is said long before between 200,000 to
500,000 years, the beginning of the history of India starts from the Indus
Valley Civilization which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian
subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BC. It continued till the 8th century AD with
the arrival of Islam.
Vedic period is the key in the Indian history. This phase is known for the
emergence of kings and empires, the rise of Hinduism and migration of Aryans
with Veda culture. The fifth and six century is considered as the golden age
of India. During powerful dynasties reined India. They united entire
subcontinent including Afghanistan and led a great cultural, scientific and
artistic development in the country. The most powerful dynasties of ancient
India include the Magadha Empire, Maurya Dynasty
Gupta dynasty, all in north India and the Vijayanagar Empire, Chalukyas,
Cholas, Pallavas and Pandyas- all in south India.
The arrival of Islam in India is considered the second most important phase
of the history of India. First of all, Muslim trading communities conveyed
the message of Islam and a large number of people in Andaman & Nicobar
and coastal regions of South India accepted Islam without any force. After
that, the Arab and Turkic kings invaded the country through north India
sides. Sufis and saits also preached Islam in the remotest areas of India.
Under the Muslim rulers, India reached to another zenith of development and
progress along with some discrimination to non-Muslim communities. Some
powerful Muslim dynasties and empires include slave dynasty, Khilji empire,
Bahmani Sultanate, Deccan sultanates, Lodhi dynasties and last the Mughal
Empires under which India achieved a large measure of political unity and
and the most unique phase of history of India starts with the arrival of
Europeans after Vasco da Gama's discovery of a new sea route to India in
1498. The Portuguese established their trading-posts in Goa, Daman, Diu and
Bombay. Later on, Dutch, the British and French also came to India. But,
British emerged out as victory crushing all continental European powers as
well as local powers including Mughal Empire.
Though extreme political suppressions as well as economic starvation, their
arrival linked India with modern development in European countries. They
introduced railway, publishing houses, English education, administrative
infrastructure, modern values and enlightenment. They brutally crushed the
first war of Independence 1857-58 but the unity of Indian nations during
second Independence struggle 1947 forced Britishers to leave the country.
Partition of India
During the partition, there was sever conflicts on the issue of
representation of Muslims in post British India. Under the supervision of
British Viceroy, leaders from both sides decided the partition of India on
the formula of majority dominated areas. With the announcement of partition
into India and Pakistan after the independence of 1947, communal riots broke
out between Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims in several parts of India including
Punjab, Bengal and Delhi, leaving some people 500,000 dead.
India is complete gallery of this rise and fall. Monuments, historical
buildings, museums, caves, temples, mosques, churches, forts, palaces and
many other historical sites which are whiteness of our glorious pasts,
defeats, resistance and devotions.